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Members of Afforestation Committee (L to R) Ekwaro Brayan, Francis Juma and Wanjama James taking seedlings for planting Members of Afforestation Committee (L to R) Wanjama James, Francis Juma and Nsibambi Gonzaga planting seedlings

CARE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AT SMS

SMS Students and workers cutting firewood for kitchen, a task which will be significantly reduced since the installation of a new gas cooking system

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SMS 26th Graduation Ceremony

 class-2014The morning was cold, chilly and drizzling as Arusha and its vicinity has been experiencing heavy rains for past few months. It was foggy as well. This kind of weather used to be typical of Arusha decades ago around this time of the year. However due to global warming, the young generation may not have the memories of such reality.

  However, for the 3rd year students in SMS though the weather was chilly, but their hearts were drizzling of joy, happiness and contentment. One could ready sense of warmth in their faces. It was the graduation day, the climax of their academic journey at SMS. They had all the reason to join their parents, friends, relatives to celebrate the fruits of their hard work. As the gospel says that many are called, but few are selected, it was the same for the graduating class of 2014. On the 16th of August 2011, they began their journey as a group of 28 students at SMS. Today, as they are graduating, they are only 16!

            Their performance is another great reason for their joy! Thirteen scored second class upper division and three made it to first class distinction! There is no second class lower division neither pass.

Congratulation!!

Here is their list and performance

Check the list of 2014 class

The Challenge of Professor Chinua Achebe.

(A Paper Delivered at the International Writers Conference Organized by CUEA at Eldoret, Kenya,Feb.12-14,2014).

MBEFOLUDr. LUKE MBEFO, C.S.Sp.

Head of Philosophy Department, SMS Njiro-Arusha.

Introduction:

Professor Chinua Achebe (1930-2013), who has been referred to as “the founding father of African literature in English”, was and is still a man with a mission. Just like the Apostle Paul who convinced himself that he had a mission from God to the Gentiles, so Achebe was convinced that he had a self-imposed mission to Africans. In a BBC radio interview, for instance, he claimed that he was the writer who “brought Africa to the rest of the world” (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-21896414). What the Apostle Paul called his peculiar “gospel” to the gentiles as scattered in his many letters to the churches outside Palestine was to assure the gentiles that, before the God and Father of Jesus Christ, the Jews were not a chosen people superior to them. To the Ephesians, for instance, Paul proclaimed the good news of their dignity and equality with historic Israel: “You are no longer aliens or foreign visitors; you are fellow-citizens with the holy people of God and part of God’s household” (Ephesians 2:19f).

mbefolHis angry letter to the Galatians repeated this gospel of equality: the gentiles, he emphasized, did not need to be first circumcised in order to be able to be numbered among God’s chosen people. They do not need to be made Jews first in order to become numbered among the redeemed Israel of God. “Christ set us free, so that we should remain free. Stand firm, then, and do not let yourselves be fastened again to the yoke of slavery” (Galatians 5:1), he instructed. In the same way Chinua Achebe, the son of an Anglican catechist, learnt from early childhood and self-appropriated the contents of the gospel of freedom and racial equality preached by Paul and the Anglican missionaries to Nigeria. It is his own brand of the Christian gospel. Achebe was telling Africans that they were not inferior to their erstwhile imperialists and colonizers. He decided to transmit this message, not with political sophistry or diplomatic manoeuvring, nor with guerrilla warfare like African freedom fighters did, but with the weapon of the pen. His novel plots unravelled within the parameters of the divine milieu. His narratives are populated with the gods and goddesses of Igbo traditional religion and replete with their myriad shrines and bad forests, with priests and prophetesses, oracles and taboos. There are stories of church inspired episodes in the short stories collection Girls at War to support his thought-form as grounded in Christian liberation doctrine.
MBEFOLUKThis affirmation is valid even though his stories hovered on the edge of confrontation between traditional and revealed religions. In general, it is correct to postulate that the sum total of Achebe’s writing is to have fashioned for Africans after their historic humiliation through slavery and colonialism a new sense of self-hood, a fresh pride in their African heritage and the confidence to stand up in the comity of nations and to be listened to. Africans do not come from nowhere.

In his The Education of a British-Protected Child he narrates how his British-oriented formation tried to uproot him from his African (Igbo) cultural background by trying to make of an African like himself a European. After all, the colonial policy of “the white man’s burden” was calculated to transform Africans from their evolutionary stage of savagery into the refined and sophisticated ladies and gentlemen as these has emerged on the European continent. It is on record that he is very critical of colonialism and its aftermath in Africa. Why then did he write in English, a “language of colonisers”? He writes in English, he explains, because he is a victim of what he calls “linguistic colonialism”. At the same time he prides himself of his ability to have expressed his Igbo world through the medium of a foreign language. “I hope I have shown it is possible to show respect to English and Igbo together”, he avers. He did not write in English to attract a wide international audience, he claims, but simply because he had been educated in English.

Moreover through his reading of English literature he got acquainted with European interpretations of Africans left in the works of the explorers, fortune hunters, missionaries to the continent as well as the reports of colonial officials. He completely disagreed with what he read there. High on the list of his dislikes was the image of Africa painted by Joseph Conrad in his Heart of Darkness. Achebe decided to present a counter-position to such derogatory accounts. In 1975 he gave a lecture titled “An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness” which kicked off a hurricane of a controversy. In the lecture he identified Joseph Conrad as a “bloody racist”. Achebe used the force of his lectures in foreign podia and his novels to assure the world that Africans needed not to become Europeans or to meet up with the expectations of writers like Conrad to be accepted as fellow humans. Equally by narrating, albeit dramatically, the stories of pre-colonial Africa and the resistance put up by our African ancestors to European occupation and action, he encourages today’s Africans to stand up with pride and heads uplifted as equal partners with other humans on the planet in the affairs that concern men as men. That Africans are not creatures of a lesser god, despite Africa’s shameful history of slavery and colonialism, is the theme of his novels. If this is accepted, then, Achebe must be numbered among the messengers of the good news to Africans. He is a valid sample of Pope Paul VI’s advice to Africans as he visited Kampala: Be missionaries to yourselves. Is it surprising then that the paragon of African political leadership Nelson Mandela in his 27 years of imprisonment took consolation in Achebe’s novels. For him Achebe is “the writer in whose presence prison walls fell down” (cf. BBC interview cited above). Why Achebe should be rated as a missionary who encourages Africans to generate the nerve to assert themselves and to cultivate their self-esteem is the burden of this paper.

In general, people are known to seek knowledge for two reasons. Both reasons are spurred on by curiosity and are, of course, geared to overcoming ignorance. The one reason is utilitarian; the other is for self-enrichment. Socrates in the Phaedo thinks that reason alone is the only humanly responsible guide in the search for information except if there emerges by some intervention of the gods, revelation becomes available. We must follow reason wherever it leads. What then is the role of mythic consciousness abroad in Africa historical context before the emergence of scientific deliverance? Is it a function of reason? Is it humanly irresponsible to consult fortune tellers, sorcerers, magicians and astrologers? What would be the function of African traditional priests and occultists if reason is the sole guide? Let us go back to explore the initial claim namely: the two reasons behind peoples natural desire to know. Such was Aristotle’s premise at the beginning of his Metaphysics: by nature people want to know. In the first place, people search for knowledge to overcome ignorance, the wonder and confusion that enshrouds us when confronted with the unknown. This is knowledge for the sake of knowledge; knowledge for contemplation. A philosophical school at the base of Greek civilization defends this thesis. This form of thought tends to promote stability because it is static and conservative in orientation. The second claims that knowledge is for transformation: we investigate the world in order to transform it. Francis Bacon, for example, urges that the knowledge gained through modern experimental science be used to make human life more comfortable. Karl Marx in his economic theory equally urged that we use knowledge to contemplate but to transform the world. Change or transformation does not always carry a positive connotation. Nevertheless it exploits the human proclivity for creativity, self-affirmation, daring, adventurism, experimentation.

TheTreasury of African Folklore and Wisdom Tradition:

For most sub-Saharan Africans Professor Chinua Achebe does not need any introduction. Hence we pass by a chronicle of his life and deeds. His novels have become must-read texts in most African high schools. His interest for us here is how he used his knowledge (both native and foreign) as a weapon to rehabilitate Africa and Africans. He has succeeded in fashioning for Africa an image different from its colonial and slavery episodic history. He challenges us to do the same. The issue is: what are you, as educated Africans, doing to salvage the image of Africa evidently misrepresented by colonial arrogance and under whose misrepresentation present-day Africa still labours? Historically Africa is the “dark continent”. By this is to be understood that not only do blacks inhabit the continent but figuratively and metaphorically, that it is the terra incognita. Hence the often cited dictum of the ancient Roman historian Pliny the Elder, ex Africa semper aliquid novi. Africa is the land of curiosities about which explorers, discoverers, treasure-hunters, adventurers and in our time, tourists spread exotic rumours. What the world knows about Africa is based on the stories of such visitors to Africa. For instance, Joseph Conrad in his novel, The Heart of Darkness, saw only savages in his travel through the Congo, Carl Peters could slaughter East African natives as if they were mere beasts while Albert Schweitzer, that saintly scholar and physician in Gabon, treated the natives as noble savages. Hence when Africans travel abroad, the inclination is for foreigners to see how this exotic image is verified in and by them. Incidentally many Africans who, for one reason or another, find themselves in foreign lands tend to confirm rather than to disconfirm this unrealistic, because prejudiced, picture of Africa. Some have become economic refugees, people who escape from the harsh economic conditions on the African continent, harsh conditions caused less by the so-called “Scramble for Africa” as by the economic mismanagement of generous natural resources by African governments. How many of them have drowned in the Mediterranean Sea! These refugees present an uncomplimentary image of what Africans are capable of if they were to represent the spirit of the “African genius” as enunciated in the novels of Achebe. His thesis is that Africans should have the self-confidence to affirm themselves as viable alternatives to other forms of human self-understanding. The resistance and defiance of ancestral Africans at the beginning of European invasion should become the template for their successors. In his last book before he died titled: There was a Country: a Personal History of Biafra (2012), he writes:

“I don’t think anybody can suggest to another person, Please drop your culture; let’s use mine. That’s the height of arrogance and the boast of imperialism. I think cultures know how to fight their battles; cultures know how to struggle. It is up to the owners of any particular culture to ensure it survives, or if they don’t want it to survive, they should act accordingly, but I am not going to recommend that.”p.60.

His first novel, Things Fall Apart (1958), is a record of such a cultural struggle. The chief character in the novel, Okonkwo, represents the ultimate resistance of an African culture to European interpretation of human life. Okonkwo, the irascible and impatient character of this novel, opposed the European intrusion in every way possible. He interpreted the situation as follows:

“The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceably with his religion. We are amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart”.

Instead of surrendering to the European way of life surreptitiously creeping into Igbo Lebenswelt, Okonkwo chose to opt out by committing suicide. It was his form of protest against foreign acculturation, an ultimate defiance to unwanted novelty. Our African ancestors, against the view of many accounts, were not passive to foreign intrusion. Europeans, it must be noted, stifled our ancestors’ resistance not because of the ancestors’ lack of trying but, as Mazrui argues in his The Africans, A Triple Heritage, because of Europeans’ superior fire-power. Shaka the Zulu, was an example of Africa’s warrior tradition. But there were the Maji Maji of Tanganyika and the Ekumeku guerillas of Igbo land and, of course, the Mau Mau of Kenya. What could bows and arrows, clubs and stones achieve against maxim guns and cannons? But that life continued in the Igbo village after Okonkwo’s self-immolation ensures that some compromise, some flexibility was still possible in the management of cultural clash.

But did Okonkwo behave like a true Igbo? Hardly. Okonkwo could not have represented the authentic culture of the Igbo because Igbo culture was open-ended. It could accommodate novelty. At least two of their cultural wisdom sayings advise against his decision to opt out. The proverbs of the clan are the residue of Igbo wisdom, the legacy of the ancestors in structuring Igbo life-style and identity as a people. Achebe calls on a piece of picturesque Igbo wisdom: proverbs are like palm oil with which conversations are eaten. The role of proverbs is to invite into the conversation the unadulterated wisdom of the elders, the source originating the cultural heritage of the race. The proverb is the source-book on reserve-shelves; the dictionary open to modern search-machines, where the accumulated wisdom of the ages are stored and meant to be consulted when decisions of great moment needed to be taken. To cite a proverb in the course of an argument is to call on the highest and most authentic authority that legitimates an argument. Hence the Igbo saying: when proverbs are used, the wise understands but the fool is led astray. Or as a Sudanese proverb has it: when an elder dies an entire library is lost.

In the first place, Igbo wisdom sanctions the availability, the “facticity” of cultural options; there is no one way of doing things. None of the alternatives displaces the other because, for the Igbo, there is always the possibility of co-habitation; there is the assurance of a form of democratic process native to the race as evident in their palaver assemblies. Hence the proverb: Egbe bere ugo bere; nke si ibe ya ebena uku kwa ya. Namely, let the kite fly and let the eagle equally take to the skies. Any of them that forbids the other from flying should clip its wings. There is no one culture that should be enforced everywhere. Cultures are not to be judged on the standard of superiority or inferiority but on the platform of performance namely, that they are different but they achieve the same end. The same message is carried forward by another proverb: Nku di na mba na eghere mba nni. Literally, the type of fire-wood found in any given location suffices to cook the food for the people living there. This assumes that each culture is whole and is fully equipped to handle the type of questions that arise for it. This native wisdom certainly puts into question the colonial assumption that underlined its imperial policy: namely, the white man’s burden. By this we are to understand that European contact with Africa was derogative of African cultures and was to be met with two responses. The one is to make of them slaves for the white man’s tobacco and sugar plantations on the other side of the Atlantic. This accounts for the trans-Atlantic and trans-Indian Ocean slavery period of Africa’s historic experience. The second is to teach the Africans the type of culture that is assumed to fit the human community: the refinements and sophistication started with classical Greece and imperial Rome. Hence the foundation of the European schools that became the benchmark of Africa’s deracinating experience. Africans were educated to denigrate their culture and to adopt and prefer European values and meanings. While the schools may have introduced Africans to European culture, they also taught Africans to undervalue and despise their traditional heritage. For further elaboration see my The Reshaping of African Traditions (Enugu,1988).

In the second place, Igbo culture is not static thus debunking Okonkwo’s easy solution; it is open to change, to experimentation, to newness. As evidence for this assertion we have the proverb concerning the proverbial bird Ene which Achebe quotes with gusto. Ene, the bird, is said to be creative and pliable because it developed different strategies for survival as its original situation changed. He said that since human hunters have learned to shoot the arrow without missing their target, he himself has learned to fly without perching on a fixed place. Had Okonkwo been true to his cultural heritage, he would have equally developed a new strategy to handle the presence of the white man’s culture. Suicide is not a solution; it is a capitulation. Achebe himself exemplified this flexibility. In the BBC interview cited above he says: “When I’m writing in English, Igbo is standing next to it... I have therefore developed, I think, this possibly, in which these two languages are in communion. I hope I have shown it is possible, in these two languages, to show respect to English and Igbo together.” African way of life, therefore, has the opportunity to react creatively to the presence of another culture within its clime. The symbiotic process of marrying the traditional with the novel has been adopted by most African cultures.

Rehabilitating Africa's Past:

 This challenge of inculturation was not primarily the focus of Achebe’s work. He was more interested in showing that wisdom did not start with the arrival of the colonial and imperial agents. His case was that Africans had a past, a culture, a religion, art and that these achievements need to be recognized and affirmed against European prejudice. By excavating the untold story of Africa’s past, he plans to win a new admiration for that African past and thereby debunk the primal accounts of the discoverers, the adventurers, the missionaries, the colonial and imperial agents. They failed to appreciate Africa’s way of life. Their mistake was that, without knowing the language of the people they were not equipped to understand them, thus precipitating a simple epistemological fallacy. Judging without understanding is callous arrogance. Hence they had misrepresented Africans on the world’s forum. That colonial image of Africa has to change. Africans themselves should take pride in their past and be able to tell their own story without apology to anyone who cares to listen. Not only should they remember their past as Achebe pleads -- that alone would be crass nostalgia, dead traditionalism; they are to build on the foundations of their ancestral legacy in order to continue the stream of evolving and living tradition inherited from the ancestors. Such a foundation would cater for continuity and their integrity in the face of the on-going changes of historical context.

Again, Achebe’s account of the meeting of native people with the European visitors exhibits an undifferentiated consciousness. He failed to clarify the different intentions of the foreign visitors. Colonialists and missionaries were birds of different feathers but Achebe tends to lump them together. Jomo Kenyatta made the same mistake when he assumed that colonials and missionaries functioned from a master plan prepared in Europe. He is credited with having said: The Europeans taught us to pray the bible with our eyes closed and when we opened them they had taken away our lands. David Livingstone certainly acted from the strategy that trade and missionary work went hand in hand. It is unhistorical to claim that the missionaries were on “his majesty’s service” namely, in the service of imperialism. Of course, there were undeclared understandings between missionaries and colonial officers from the same country; even some of the colonial officers were members of the missionary churches. The uninformed hoi polloi tended to confuse their differing intentions simply because they were all white and spoke the same language. They were not informed of their different countries of provenance or of the historical enmities of these countries fighting at the time for territorial domination, the so-called “scramble for Africa”. Achebe himself was the son of a Catechist working with the Anglican Mission at Ogidi near the sprawling merchant city of Onitsha on the Niger. He knows very well that the Irish missionaries were not cooperators with the English colonial officers working in the same territory east of the Niger. The English-Irish enmity since Cromwell’s rule in Ireland was carried into the missionary and imperial regions of Nigeria. To point out this differentiation is crucial for the solving of the problems of misunderstandings between the Churches and the imperialists in the former colonies. Achebe ignored this differentiation.

Laudatio; Festschrift:

But we must recognize his achievement. Thanks to Achebe’s novels, African literature has entered the world forum. As Heinemann’s publisher he has enabled other African writers in English to be known outside the continent. After he won the Man Booker International Prize for his work in 2007, he told the BBC that “African literature was important for the wider literary world, and for African states themselves. What African literature set about to do was to broaden the conception of literature in the world – to include Africa, which wasn’t there”. He was able to put African writers into the geo-political and literary map of the world. Their collective witness has given Africa a voice of its own which was absent before him. We can now compare, with the help of crucial evidence, what Africans say of themselves and what foreigners tell us about Africans. There is a distinct difference between both narratives. His novels and other writings do not only arouse nostalgia and pride for the Africa that existed before colonial inversion; they also criticise Africans of today who misuse their opportunity to serve Africa’s cause by continuing the proud tradition of the ancestors. Hence his A Man of the People and The Trouble with Nigeria lampoon politicians who abuse their political opportunity to put African nations on the way to development. In a sense, he himself is The Arrow of God, the title of one of his novels, since like Socrates, he is the gadfly that makes life uncomfortable for politicians who use political authority to enrich themselves. He was part of the elite body that drafted the Ahiara Declaration, modelled on Tanzania’s Arusha Declaration but more radical in its demand for a just and welfare state to be implemented had rebel Biafra succeeded in its effort to break away from Nigeria. Biafra was to be a model nation for freedom and equality of opportunity for all its citizens. Corruption and misuse of power now rampant among Nigerian public office-holders, were formerly dealt with punishments and sanctions in the traditional African societies. How these new Africans can cheat and get away with it, is not, he argues, supported by traditional cultural standards of behaviour. In protest against the political situation in Nigeria, he has twice turned down the offer of a title Commander of the Order of the Federal Republic, once in 2004 from Nigeria’s then President Olusegun Obasanjo and again in 2011 from President Goodluck Jonathan. As he told the BBC in 2004, “what’s the good being a democracy if people are hungry and despondent and the infrastructure is not there. There is no security for life. Parts of the country are alienated. Religious conflicts spring up now and again. The country is not working.” People felt that if put to open democratic vote, he would have won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

He was not only a writer and political critic; he was also an academician. His teaching appointments on both sides of the Atlantic offered him the appropriate forum to spread his gospel of African humanity and self-confidence. Wherever he went as visiting-professor (and he was invited from the four winds), he preached Africa’s humanity against its detractors.

Conclusion:

It is now the opportune time to conclude by announcing the challenge Professor Achebe sets for us. Reflecting back on his literary mission in his last book There was a country (2012), Achebe writes: “Writing has always been a serious business for me. I felt a moral obligation. A major concern of the time was the absence of the African voice.(Italics added). Being part of that dialogue meant not only sitting at the table but effectively telling the African story from an African perspective – in full earshot of the world” (p.53). He began telling Africa’s story and trumpeting Africa’s missing voice from 1958 with his groundbreaking Things Fall Apart, a novel that has been translated into more than 50 languages. Since then 20 other novels followed excluding papers read at international conferences as well as talk-shows and interviews which afforded him the opportunity to fulfill his mission for Africa to the world. There is no doubt whatever that through Achebe’s writings Africa has come to be seen in a different light from how non-Africans have presented it. He used his knowledge of his people to counter the reports provided by those who do not know Africa from within. His account emanated from lived experience while the non-Africans reported from observation and hear-say evidence as we learn, among others, from Hegel’s Philosophy of History. Achebe is challenging educated Africans to do as he has done; to embark on an inter-disciplinary team-work so that the collective and combined testimony from all strands of traditions will eventually contribute to locating Africa on the same podium as other world assemblies. He is, in Igbo lingo, the Osu Ofia, the frontiers man, the pioneer in the crusade to rehabilitate the African. His knowledge of his continent is utilitarian namely, for the transformation of Africa and Africans. With his efforts, Africans have acquired the confidence to affirm themselves and to give an unprejudiced account of the true Africa.

FURTHER REFLECTION:                                                                                                                 

African students of philosophy, for example, are challenged from their studies and exposure to the wisdom of other humans and ages, ancient and modern, occidental and oriental, to show fort the accumulated wisdom of Africans as worthy of partnership in dialogue in the perennial questions that agitate our common humanity. We study philosophy not just as history or to be able to repeat the opinions of philosophers but above all to be exposed to the wisdom of others; to be introduced into doing philosophy ourselves, to develop the ability to think independently through topical issues and to be able to take up a responsible position in the questions that agitate humanity. Plato and Aristotle among the Greeks systematized the wisdom of the unwritten philosophy of their past as exemplified in Socrates, the chief character of Plato’s Dialogues. Africans are inheritors of the same unwritten philosophy which their ancestors had accumulated in their experience of themselves, their world and the world of the spirits through the centuries. Wisdom sayings as encapsulated in proverbs, tales, songs, myths and mythologies are the sources of the traditional heritage of wisdom formulated, systematized and handed on by, the nameless African ancestors. It is not enough to know the philosophies of other peoples and to forget one’s own traditional wisdom heritage. What Achebe did is not different from what the Judeo-Christian tradition encourages us to do namely, use your gifts to benefit others. Remember the text from the Book of Wisdom 7: 13-14: “What I learned without self-interest, I pass on without reserve; I do not intend to hide wisdom’s riches. For she is an inexhaustible treasure to men, and those who acquire it win God’s friendship, commended as they are to him by the benefits of her teaching”. The book of Proverbs 29:18 adds: “where there is no vision, the people perish”.

We have the support and encouragement of the Word of God, therefore, to encourage our people to be and to affirm themselves. Just as Jesus was a Jew, we equally assume our right as Africans clothed with the dignity of children of God. By nature and grace we claim the respect and human dignity due to every human, male and female, as God’s image. Africans are genuine species of humanity rather than ciphers. Anthropologists remind us about Lucy, hence that Africa is the cradle of humanity. The conclusion of this exploration is evident. There is no justification whatever in the tradition and culture of Africans that encourage any African to behave as if he were a child of a god lesser than the Maker of heaven and earth. Achebe’s boldness and daring to represent the true Africa earned him numerous honorary doctorates in foreign lands as well as visiting professorships in practically all the continents. He was and is a true African. Many have compared him with Mandela, the pride of Africa’s Statesmanship. Africans can be proud of what Achebe has done for them. The chorus of accolades like a symphony that greeted his death is a sign of Africa’s gratitude for the accomplishment of his self-imposed mission: to salvage Africa’ self image. What are you doing to change Africa’s colonial image? Such is his lasting legacy which is at the same time Achebe’s challenge.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Primary (Achebe’s Work).

  1. Things Fall Apart.
  2. No Longer at Ease.
  3. The Education of a British-Protected Child
  4. Anthills of the Sahara
  5. Arrow of God
  6. A Man of the People
  7. Girls at War and other Stories
  8. Morning Yet on Creation Day
  9. The Trouble with Nigeria
  10. Chike and the river
  11. The Sacrificial Egg and other Stories
  12. There Was a Country: A personal History of Biafra.

SECONDARY BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  1. 1.Luke N. Mbefo, The Reshaping of African Traditions, (Enugu, 1988 Spiritan Publications).
  2. 2.Luke N. Mbefo, Coping With Nigeria’s Twofold Heritage (Enugu, 1996, Spiritan Publications).
  3. 3.Luke N. Mbefo, The true African: Impulses to Self-Affirmation (Enugu, 2001, Spiritan Publications)
  4. 4.David Lamb, The Africans, (New York, 1987)
  5. 5.Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa 1876-1912, (London, 1992)
  6. 6.Ali A. Mazrui, The Africans: A Triple Heritage, (London,1988).
  7. 7.Basil Davidson and Antonio Bronda, Cross Roads in Africa (London, 1980)
  8. 8.Daniel Boorstin, The Discoverers,, (New York, 1985)
  9. 9.Joseph Conrad, The Heart of Darkness (New York, 2008 reprint).
  10. 10.Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, Afrique Noire: Permanences et Ruptures (Paris, 1985).

 

“United in Diversity”

  mkubokoA short summary of a group called Mkubuko. This group comprises of various cultural groups[1].As in the Gospel in the days of Pentecost, the Holy Spirit descended on the heads of the Apostles in a form of fire and they begun to speak in tongues, our group was inspired by diversity within us. Just as the primitive church we are diverse in culture but united in spirit.

On the day of the event we harmoniously choreographed a dance from three ethnic groups. We entered on stage with Zulu warrior praise; we then sang and danced to one of Nyaturu ritual dances. Followed by another demonstration by the Gogo tribe infused with the Masai tribe. The choreography was completed by a Zulu appraisal hymn.

On the table we also had a variety of foods prepared by numerous members of the group. The group here, also exceptionally excelled in fusing the delicacies together. We had sweet potatoes, pumpkin, ground nuts, yams, pumpkin porridge, kishumba fruit salad, Irish potatoes last but not least the traditional banana cake.

The day was well spent in the presence of dignitaries, Priests and our guest of honour Mr Leopold Kabendera from the tourism department. In his beautiful speech he reminded us of the importance of our cultures and our differences. Indeed this group showed that we are only separated by our cultural differences’, but in spirit we are all the same “Muntu”[2] .  

           MKUBUKO

CULTURAL GROUP

“INSPIRED BY HOLY SPIRIT”

By Phathumusa Cyril Ndebele

 

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Our Status

The Spiritan Missionary Seminary – SMS – is a Philosophical Institute, which is owned and administered by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, otherwise known as Spiritans.
The SMS is open to receive students from other Congregations and Society.